Italian L2: Subject Pronouns/ To be – Essere/ To have – Avere

io ee-oh/I
tutoo/you (familiar singular) lui,leilwee/lay/he, she, you (polite sing.)
noi – noy/we
voivoy/you (plural)
loh-roh/they, you (polite pl.)

The Lei form is generally used for you (singular), instead of tu, unless you’re referring to kids or animals. Loro can also mean “you,” but only in very polite situations.

Essere – to be
I am – sono/soh-noh
You are – sei/say
He/she/it is – è/eh
We are – siamo/see-ah-moh
You are – siete/see-eh-teh
They are – sono/soh-noh

You do not have to use the subject pronouns as the different conjugations imply the subject

I was – ero
you were – eri
he/she/it was – era
we were – eravamo
you were – eravate
they were – erano

I will be – sarò
you will be – sarai
he/she/it will be – sarà
we will be – saremo
you will be – sarete
they will be – saranno

Avere – to have
I have – ho/oh
You have – hai/eye
He/she has – ha/ah
We have – abbiamo/ahb-bee-ah-mo
You have – avete/ah-veh-teh
They have – hanno/ahn-noh
I had – avevo
you had – avevi
he/she/it had – aveva
we had – avevamo
you had – avevate
they had – avevano
I will have – avrò
you will have – avrai
he/she/it will have – avrà
we will have – avremo
you will have – avrete
they will have – avranno
Avere is used with many idioms and expressions that normally use the verb to be in English:
avere fame – to be hungry
avere sete – to be thirsty
avere caldo – to be warm
avere freddo – to be cold
avere fretta – to be in a hurry
avere paura – to be afraid
avere ragione – to be right
avere sonno – to be sleepy
avere bisogno di – to need
avere (number) anni – to be (number) years old
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